Polish, with approximately 46 million speakers, is regarded as one of the world’s smaller languages. After Russian, Polish is the second most spoken Slavic language. In addition to its status as the official language in Poland and the European Union, Polish is also a recognised minority language in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Romania, Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Ukraine. Polish is seen one of the hardest languages to learn as a foreigner, not only because of its pronunciation, but also because of its grammar which is full of declensions and exceptions, all of which have to be mastered. In contrast to German, Polish declines not only nouns, adjectives and pronouns, but also proper nouns and numbers – and all of these in seven cases. Polish also uses grammatical structures that are unknown in German. These include aspect and manner of action, which describe the state of an action or the degree to which that action has progressed. Polish grammar also makes it possible to construct long, convoluted sentences with multiple clauses which require a thorough knowledge of the language to decrypt.